The term Art Deco refers to the style launched at the 1925 Paris World's
Fair Exhibition of Modern and Industrial Decorative Art.
Art Deco rugs introduced a new, nonrestrictive color palette. Bright,
never-before-used combinations were the new trend. The soft blue of
traditional Chinese rugs was replaced by a more vibrant lapis blue, while
the traditional calm gold gave way to varying shades of ochre, green,
raspberry, plum, purple and teal also became popular.
Because of its low production costs, China
became the hub for weaving Art Deco rugs exported to the States. There were
hundreds of factories producing rugs but it was two enterprising Americans
who dominated: Helen Fette and Walter Nichols. Little did they know their
names would become synonymous with the term and virtually all rugs woven
during that era, which ran from the mid 1920â€™s to around 1935.
Helen Fette went to China
as a missionary, selling small rugs to raise funds for charities. She teamed
up with Chinese rug manufacturer Li Meng Shu to form the Fette-Li Company.
They started producing rugs out of the Peking area in
the early 1920â€™s and were one of the largest exporters of the period.
Fette rugs are recognizable by their floppy feel. The cotton warps are
thinner and more pliable than those used in Nichols carpets, resulting in a
soft, supple feel to the pile.
In 1924 Walter Nichols opened the doors of his venture, Nichols Super
Yarn and Carpets in Tientsin, North China.
Super Yarn because of the machine spun yarn, the strong cotton used for the
foundation, and the overall tightly packed weave of the rugs. In stark
contrast to his Fette counterpart, a Nichols rug was quite dense and heavy.
Both Fette and Nichols placed identifying fabric tags on the back of
their rugs. Nichols also stamped his name onto the backside of the fringe,
however if the fringe has worn down or been repaired, the mark is usually
absent. Because Fette and Nichols were so closely associated with the Deco
period, rugs woven in their trademark style, absent any remaining
identification marks, are routinely referred to as Fette or Nichols style.
No other Oriental rugs are as representative of their time as the Chinese
Decos. The dynamics of the designs and the colors used are hallmarks of the
era. It was a time of experimentation with abstract forms and unrestrained
colors. The style arrived energetically, but was cut short due to the Great
Depression. The few remaining factories were destroyed when
China during World War II.